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springboot的RestTemplate、okhttp和HttpClient 基于springboot的RestTemplate、okhttp和HttpClient对比分析

乌瑟尔   2021-09-09 我要评论
想了解基于springboot的RestTemplate、okhttp和HttpClient对比分析的相关内容吗,乌瑟尔在本文为您仔细讲解springboot的RestTemplate、okhttp和HttpClient的相关知识和一些Code实例,欢迎阅读和指正,我们先划重点:springboot,RestTemplate,springboot,okhttp和HttpClient,下面大家一起来学习吧。

1、HttpClient:代码复杂,还得操心资源回收等。代码很复杂,冗余代码多,不建议直接使用。

2、RestTemplate: 是 Spring 提供的用于访问Rest服务的客户端, RestTemplate 提供了多种便捷访问远程Http服务的方法,能够大大提高客户端的编写效率。

引入jar包:

  <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-web</artifactId>
        </dependency>

添加初始化配置(也可以不配,有默认的)--注意RestTemplate只有初始化配置,没有什么连接池

package com.itunion.config;

import org.springframework.context.annotation.Bean;
import org.springframework.context.annotation.Configuration;
import org.springframework.http.client.ClientHttpRequestFactory;
import org.springframework.http.client.SimpleClientHttpRequestFactory;
import org.springframework.web.client.RestTemplate;

@Configuration
public class ApiConfig {
    @Bean
    public RestTemplate restTemplate(ClientHttpRequestFactory factory) {
        return new RestTemplate(factory);
    }

    @Bean
    public ClientHttpRequestFactory simpleClientHttpRequestFactory() {
        SimpleClientHttpRequestFactory factory = new SimpleClientHttpRequestFactory();//默认的是JDK提供http连接,需要的话可以//通过setRequestFactory方法替换为例如Apache HttpComponents、Netty或//OkHttp等其它HTTP library。
        factory.setReadTimeout(5000);//单位为ms
        factory.setConnectTimeout(5000);//单位为ms
        return factory;
    }
}

  1)get请求(不带参的即把参数取消即可)

// 1-getForObject()
User user1 = this.restTemplate.getForObject(uri, User.class);

// 2-getForEntity()
ResponseEntity<User> responseEntity1 = this.restTemplate.getForEntity(uri, User.class);
HttpStatus statusCode = responseEntity1.getStatusCode();
HttpHeaders header = responseEntity1.getHeaders();
User user2 = responseEntity1.getBody();
  
// 3-exchange()
RequestEntity requestEntity = RequestEntity.get(new URI(uri)).build();
ResponseEntity<User> responseEntity2 = this.restTemplate.exchange(requestEntity, User.class);
User user3 = responseEntity2.getBody();

    方式一:

Notice notice = restTemplate.getForObject("http://fantj.top/notice/list/{1}/{2}"
                , Notice.class,1,5);

    方式二:

Map<String,String> map = new HashMap();
        map.put("start","1");
        map.put("page","5");
        Notice notice = restTemplate.getForObject("http://fantj.top/notice/list/"
                , Notice.class,map);

  2)post请求:

// 1-postForObject()
User user1 = this.restTemplate.postForObject(uri, user, User.class);

// 2-postForEntity()
ResponseEntity<User> responseEntity1 = this.restTemplate.postForEntity(uri, user, User.class);

// 3-exchange()
RequestEntity<User> requestEntity = RequestEntity.post(new URI(uri)).body(user);
ResponseEntity<User> responseEntity2 = this.restTemplate.exchange(requestEntity, User.class);

  方式一:

String url = "http://demo/api/book/";
        HttpHeaders headers = new HttpHeaders();
        MediaType type = MediaType.parseMediaType("application/json; charset=UTF-8");
        headers.setContentType(type);
        String requestJson = "{...}";
        HttpEntity<String> entity = new HttpEntity<String>(requestJson,headers);
        String result = restTemplate.postForObject(url, entity, String.class);
        System.out.println(result);

  方式二:

@Test
public void rtPostObject(){
    RestTemplate restTemplate = new RestTemplate();
    String url = "http://47.xxx.xxx.96/register/checkEmail";
    HttpHeaders headers = new HttpHeaders();
    headers.setContentType(MediaType.APPLICATION_FORM_URLENCODED);
    MultiValueMap<String, String> map= new LinkedMultiValueMap<>();
    map.add("email", "844072586@qq.com");
 
    HttpEntity<MultiValueMap<String, String>> request = new HttpEntity<>(map, headers);
    ResponseEntity<String> response = restTemplate.postForEntity( url, request , String.class );
    System.out.println(response.getBody());
}

其它:还支持上传和下载功能;

3、okhttp:OkHttp是一个高效的HTTP客户端,允许所有同一个主机地址的请求共享同一个socket连接;连接池减少请求延时;透明的GZIP压缩减少响应数据的大小;缓存响应内容,避免一些完全重复的请求

当网络出现问题的时候OkHttp依然坚守自己的职责,它会自动恢复一般的连接问题,如果你的服务有多个IP地址,当第一个IP请求失败时,OkHttp会交替尝试你配置的其他IP,OkHttp使用现代TLS技术(SNI, ALPN)初始化新的连接,当握手失败时会回退到TLS 1.0。

1)使用:它的请求/响应 API 使用构造器模式builders来设计,它支持阻塞式的同步请求和带回调的异步请求。

引入jar包:

<dependency>
    <groupId>com.squareup.okhttp3</groupId>
    <artifactId>okhttp</artifactId>
    <version>3.10.0</version>
</dependency>

2)配置文件:

import okhttp3.ConnectionPool;
import okhttp3.OkHttpClient;
import org.springframework.context.annotation.Bean;
import org.springframework.context.annotation.Configuration;

import javax.net.ssl.SSLContext;
import javax.net.ssl.SSLSocketFactory;
import javax.net.ssl.TrustManager;
import javax.net.ssl.X509TrustManager;
import java.security.KeyManagementException;
import java.security.NoSuchAlgorithmException;
import java.security.SecureRandom;
import java.security.cert.CertificateException;
import java.security.cert.X509Certificate;
import java.util.concurrent.TimeUnit;

@Configuration
public class OkHttpConfiguration {

    @Bean
    public OkHttpClient okHttpClient() {
        return new OkHttpClient.Builder()
                //.sslSocketFactory(sslSocketFactory(), x509TrustManager())
                .retryOnConnectionFailure(false)
                .connectionPool(pool())
                .connectTimeout(30, TimeUnit.SECONDS)
                .readTimeout(30, TimeUnit.SECONDS)
                .writeTimeout(30,TimeUnit.SECONDS)
                .build();
    }

    @Bean
    public X509TrustManager x509TrustManager() {
        return new X509TrustManager() {
            @Override
            public void checkClientTrusted(X509Certificate[] x509Certificates, String s) throws CertificateException {
            }
            @Override
            public void checkServerTrusted(X509Certificate[] x509Certificates, String s) throws CertificateException {
            }
            @Override
            public X509Certificate[] getAcceptedIssuers() {
                return new X509Certificate[0];
            }
        };
    }

    @Bean
    public SSLSocketFactory sslSocketFactory() {
        try {
            //信任任何链接
            SSLContext sslContext = SSLContext.getInstance("TLS");
            sslContext.init(null, new TrustManager[]{x509TrustManager()}, new SecureRandom());
            return sslContext.getSocketFactory();
        } catch (NoSuchAlgorithmException e) {
            e.printStackTrace();
        } catch (KeyManagementException e) {
            e.printStackTrace();
        }
        return null;
    }

    /**
     * Create a new connection pool with tuning parameters appropriate for a single-user application.
     * The tuning parameters in this pool are subject to change in future OkHttp releases. Currently
     */
    @Bean
    public ConnectionPool pool() {
        return new ConnectionPool(200, 5, TimeUnit.MINUTES);
    }
}

3)util工具:

import okhttp3.*;
import org.apache.commons.lang3.exception.ExceptionUtils;
import org.slf4j.Logger;
import org.slf4j.LoggerFactory;

import java.io.File;
import java.util.Iterator;
import java.util.Map;

public class OkHttpUtil{
    private static final Logger logger = LoggerFactory.getLogger(OkHttpUtil.class);
    
    private static OkHttpClient  okHttpClient;

    @Autowired
    public OkHttpUtil(OkHttpClient  okHttpClient) {
        OkHttpUtil.okHttpClient= okHttpClient;
    } 
    
    /**
     * get
     * @param url     请求的url
     * @param queries 请求的参数,在浏览器?后面的数据,没有可以传null
     * @return
     */
    public static  String get(String url, Map<String, String> queries) {
        String responseBody = "";
        StringBuffer sb = new StringBuffer(url);
        if (queries != null && queries.keySet().size() > 0) {
            boolean firstFlag = true;
            Iterator iterator = queries.entrySet().iterator();
            while (iterator.hasNext()) {
                Map.Entry entry = (Map.Entry<String, String>) iterator.next();
                if (firstFlag) {
                    sb.append("?" + entry.getKey() + "=" + entry.getValue());
                    firstFlag = false;
                } else {
                    sb.append("&" + entry.getKey() + "=" + entry.getValue());
                }
            }
        }
        Request request = new Request.Builder()
                .url(sb.toString())
                .build();
        Response response = null;
        try { 
            response = okHttpClient.newCall(request).execute();
            int status = response.code();
            if (response.isSuccessful()) {
                return response.body().string();
            }
        } catch (Exception e) {
            logger.error("okhttp3 put error >> ex = {}", ExceptionUtils.getStackTrace(e));
        } finally {
            if (response != null) {
                response.close();
            }
        }
        return responseBody;
    }

    /**
     * post
     *
     * @param url    请求的url
     * @param params post form 提交的参数
     * @return
     */
    public static String post(String url, Map<String, String> params) {
        String responseBody = "";
        FormBody.Builder builder = new FormBody.Builder();
        //添加参数
        if (params != null && params.keySet().size() > 0) {
            for (String key : params.keySet()) {
                builder.add(key, params.get(key));
            }
        }
        Request request = new Request.Builder()
                .url(url)
                .post(builder.build())
                .build();
        Response response = null;
        try { 
            response = okHttpClient.newCall(request).execute();
            int status = response.code();
            if (response.isSuccessful()) {
                return response.body().string();
            }
        } catch (Exception e) {
            logger.error("okhttp3 post error >> ex = {}", ExceptionUtils.getStackTrace(e));
        } finally {
            if (response != null) {
                response.close();
            }
        }
        return responseBody;
    }

    /**
     * get
     * @param url     请求的url
     * @param queries 请求的参数,在浏览器?后面的数据,没有可以传null
     * @return
     */
    public static String getForHeader(String url, Map<String, String> queries) {
        String responseBody = "";
        StringBuffer sb = new StringBuffer(url);
        if (queries != null && queries.keySet().size() > 0) {
            boolean firstFlag = true;
            Iterator iterator = queries.entrySet().iterator();
            while (iterator.hasNext()) {
                Map.Entry entry = (Map.Entry<String, String>) iterator.next();
                if (firstFlag) {
                    sb.append("?" + entry.getKey() + "=" + entry.getValue());
                    firstFlag = false;
                } else {
                    sb.append("&" + entry.getKey() + "=" + entry.getValue());
                }
            }
        }
        Request request = new Request.Builder()
                .addHeader("key", "value")
                .url(sb.toString())
                .build();
        Response response = null;
        try { 
            response = okHttpClient.newCall(request).execute();
            int status = response.code();
            if (response.isSuccessful()) {
                return response.body().string();
            }
        } catch (Exception e) {
            logger.error("okhttp3 put error >> ex = {}", ExceptionUtils.getStackTrace(e));
        } finally {
            if (response != null) {
                response.close();
            }
        }
        return responseBody;
    }

    /**
     * Post请求发送JSON数据....{"name":"zhangsan","pwd":"123456"}
     * 参数一:请求Url
     * 参数二:请求的JSON
     * 参数三:请求回调
     */
    public static String postJsonParams(String url, String jsonParams) {
        String responseBody = "";
        RequestBody requestBody = RequestBody.create(MediaType.parse("application/json; charset=utf-8"), jsonParams);
        Request request = new Request.Builder()
                .url(url)
                .post(requestBody)
                .build();
        Response response = null;
        try { 
            response = okHttpClient.newCall(request).execute();
            int status = response.code();
            if (response.isSuccessful()) {
                return response.body().string();
            }
        } catch (Exception e) {
            logger.error("okhttp3 post error >> ex = {}", ExceptionUtils.getStackTrace(e));
        } finally {
            if (response != null) {
                response.close();
            }
        }
        return responseBody;
    }

    /**
     * Post请求发送xml数据....
     * 参数一:请求Url
     * 参数二:请求的xmlString
     * 参数三:请求回调
     */
    public static String postXmlParams(String url, String xml) {
        String responseBody = "";
        RequestBody requestBody = RequestBody.create(MediaType.parse("application/xml; charset=utf-8"), xml);
        Request request = new Request.Builder()
                .url(url)
                .post(requestBody)
                .build();
        Response response = null;
        try { 
            response = okHttpClient.newCall(request).execute();
            int status = response.code();
            if (response.isSuccessful()) {
                return response.body().string();
            }
        } catch (Exception e) {
            logger.error("okhttp3 post error >> ex = {}", ExceptionUtils.getStackTrace(e));
        } finally {
            if (response != null) {
                response.close();
            }
        }
        return responseBody;
    }
}

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